See Pandemic


The process by which an incident is communicated upwards through an organization's business continuity and/or incident and crisis management reporting process.

Essential Services

Infrastructure services without which a building or area would be considered disabled and unable to provide normal operating services; typically includes utilities (water, gas, electricity, telecommunications), and may also include standby power systems or environmental control systems.

Estimated Maximum Loss

Insurance policies are written based upon the EML - the maximum amount that can be claimed against an insured peril.


The movement of employees, visitors and contractors from a site and/or building to a safe place (assembly area) in a controlled and monitored manner at time of an event.


Occurrence or change of a particular set of circumstances.

Exclusion Zone

Boundary line of an area or zone that is controlled by emergency services personnel, and from which all unauthorized persons are excluded for a period of time determined by emergency services leadership.


Activity designed to execute business continuity or disaster recovery plans and evaluate the performance against approved standards or objectives. Process to train for, assess, practice, and improve recovery performance in an organization.

Exercise Auditor

An appointed role that is assigned to assess whether the exercise aims / objectives are being met and to measure whether activities are occurring at the right time and involve the correct people to facilitate their achievement. The exercise auditor is not responsible for the mechanics of the exercise. This independent role is crucial in the subsequent debriefing.

Exercise Coordinator

The person responsible for the mechanics of running the exercise. Person responsible for planning, execution, and evaluation activities of an exercise.